there was once an ancient culture that existed long before the Incas conquered Peru, that had erected the gigantic stone monuments found at Tiahuanaco and Sacsayhuamán. Modern archaeologists claim that within only a few hundred years before the Spanish conquest the Inca culture developed from a state of savagery and then built these giant edifices, despite the fact that the Incas had no metal tools for stone working, no carts or wagons used for transport, no pulleys or winches for hauling and hoisting heavy objects, no practical use of the wheel, and no heavy draft animals such as horses or oxen to help haul the huge blocks of stone up the mountains and lift them into place. Even though the Incas had crowbars there is no indication that they understood the application of the lever.

Archaeologist A. Hyatt Verrill and his wife Ruth explored the West Indies, the Guineas and Central and South America for more than forty years, conducting many expeditions into remote regions of South America. Verrill wrote in Americas Ancient Civilizations: “The origin of the ancient Peruvians has always been a most intriguing mystery. They seem to have had no beginning, no evolutionary development, no intermediate steps from barbarism to high cultures and from cultures to an advanced civilization. As far as any known evidences to the contrary are concerned they seem to have sprung spontaneously, fully developed from the deserts and the Andes. In the Andean region, where the ancient civilization reached its peak, no traces of a primitive or archaic culture have ever been found; the most ancient remains showing a cultural development equal to if not superior to the latest pre-Columbian remains.”

“Innumerable theories, suppositions and fanciful ideas have been offered in explanation of this mystery, but even the most plausible of these have never been substantiated by facts. As we know that a civilization cannot be developed all at once it is obvious that the Peruvian civilizations must have been introduced from some other area . . .”(14)

The Incan capital city of Cuzco was built with an incredible amount of engineering skill, and yet even many of these Inca structures were built on top of the foundations of earlier structures that predate any known Incan culture. In many cases the Incas built around and on top of the ancient stone work, or filled in parts that had been damaged by earthquakes. Even at the time of the Spanish conquest in 1528 the Incas told the Spanish conquistadors that the titanic edifices of stone at Cuzco had “always been there.”

These Incan fortresses were made out of blocks of andesite, some of the hardest rock known, with some of these single blocks of stone weighing over 3oo tons each, yet they were so perfectly fitted together without mortar that even a knife blade could not be inserted between them.

The terraced citadel of Sacsayhuamán was 60 feet high and more than a third of a mile long. How could a culture with no metal tools have carved out huge blocks of stone from rock so hard that no ordinary stone chisel would be able to cut into it? It would take lifetimes for the stones to be properly cut to fit together in the perfect manner that we find them!

What was the origin of these ancient monuments constructed by some pre-historic culture hidden beyond the mists of historic (but not Biblical) time? Sascayhauman is a mighty stone fortress built upon an artificially leveled mountain top above Cuzco. Verrill wrote that it “is as well designed and laid out as any fortress built by our modern army engineers. But to see it one would feel that it must have been made by giants. Everywhere are enormous blocks of stone weighing fifty, one hundred or even two hundred tons with many that weigh more than three hundred tons, each and every one as accurately and smoothly cut and surfaced and as perfectly fitted as are the smaller blocks forming the walls and buildings in Cuzco.” (Verrill, pp.245)

Even more incredible is that to accomplish this feat, most of these stones had been quarried from 60 to 200 miles away and then brought up to the summit of the steep mountains over rough country, across rivers, and over great ravines! The largest crane in the world today would not be able to move something so massive over such distances. Even with our present state of knowledge no engineer has any good solution as to how they did it. Attempts have been made to float blocks of stone part way along the river system weighing only a fraction of the amount of the ones that were used by these ancient people, and even this was no small task. (15)

Verrill describes some of these achievements in his classic America’s Ancient Civilizations: “The most striking and remarkable features of Cuzco and other ancient Peruvian Andean cities are the stupendous, amazing walls constructed of most perfectly cut stones put together without mortar or cement, yet so accurately fitted together that even today a thin one hundredth of an inch blade cannot be inserted between them.”

No two stones are alike, some weigh up to twenty tons, some are hexagonal in shape, others have twenty four and even thirty-two angles, yet the “edges of every stone are smoothly, evenly, sharply beveled or chamfered” (Verrill).

Verrill further wrote of the advanced state of stone masonry and mathematics required to have hewn and fitted these stones: “No expert modern stone mason working with the best steel tools and the most highly perfected stone-cutting machines could produce anything more accurate. Anyone at all familiar with stone working can see that each and every block must have been mathematically planned and laid out beforehand, for it manifestly would have been impossible to life the immense blocks in and out and gradually trim them to a fit.”

“Moreover, in many cases the stones are cut in such shapes that they could not have been laid in position but must have been pushed into place between the adjoining stones. . . The only way in which stones could have been fitted with such incredible accuracy was by cutting each block to extremely fine measurements or by using a template, a process that would indicate advanced knowledge of engineering and the highest mathematics . . . Evidently, also the cutting of these stones and the building of the wall was neither very difficult or slow work, for they are everywhere in and about Cuzco and throughout the surrounding territory, and very often where a roughly, hastily built wall of cobbles or rubble would have served just as well.” (Verrill, pp.243-244.)

Verrill asks, “How were such titanic blocks of stone brought to the top of the mountain from the quarries many miles away? How were they cut and fitted? How were their raised and put into place? No one knows, no one can even guess. There are archaeologists, scientists, who would have us believe that the dense, hard andesite rock was cut, surfaced and faced by means of stone or bronze tools. Such an explanation is so utterly preposterous that it is not even worthy of serious consideration. No one ever has found anywhere any stone tool or implement that would cut or chip the andesite, and no bronze ever made will make any impression upon it. Moreover, even were there stone hammers and picks capable of cutting the rock it would have required lifetimes, centuries, to have hewn a three hundred ton or even a fifty ton block of the stone into anything even approaching the monoliths that are there by thousands. Furthermore, every engineer, every stone mason who has examined the Cuzco stone work has declared that it would have been utterly impossible to have cut, fitted and chamfered them without using a chisel and a maul; that only by striking a chisel a sharp blow could the stones have been cut. But no one has ever found a stone chisel capable of cutting the dense hard rock. A stone chisel, even if of a material harder than the rock, would be shattered and broken when struck. Even had the ancient Peruvians possessed tools of tempered steel it would have required a vast army of expert stone masons many lifetimes to have cut and fitted the tens of thousands of the blocks that are in Cusco, alone, not to mention the thousands upon thousands of others at Ollantay, Veracocha, and elsewhere.”

Verrill described the incredibly difficult task of constructing these edifices: “To quarry and cut a block of stone weighing several hundred tons and transport it across many miles of rough country, ferry it over wide rivers, and lift it to a mountain top would be a titanic undertaking even today. Railways would have to be built, immense steam cranes used and steel cables and pulleys employed. To be sure it is no great feat for a modern steamship to lift a hundred ton locomotive and swing it aboard ship, but that is simply a lifting job and adequate power and derrick booms are all that are needed. But it is quite another job to carry such a weight overland and across rivers and to the summit of a thousand foot mountain. How such feats were accomplished by the ancient Peruvian engineers no one can satisfactorily explain. If man power alone were used it would have required so many men hauling and tugging that they would have been in one another’s way. And how could they have fastened the necessary thousands of ropes to a stone monolith?” And yet we find that “hundreds upon hundreds of them were transported.” After the gigantic blocks were moved to the mountain top, they were cut and precisely fit with no mortar or cement so that even the “thinnest knife blade cannot be inserted between them.”(pp.256-257 Verrill)

As has been stated, these walls were made of andesite, an extremely hard rock that even a diamond drill would have difficulty cutting into. Verrill conducted an experiment (Ibid., pp.245) with five Indian laborers in Panama to see how easy it would be to cut into diorite rock, much softer and easier to work with than andesite. He selected a section of a broken column in some Chocle ruins and had them work on a rough design he had drawn on the column. Although they worked from morning to night for ten days they made no noticeable impression on the column and merely succeeded in wearing out their tools.

In Verrill’s day many archaeologists derided the idea that there was an ancient culture before the Incas that had achieved such a high degree of technology, despite the evidence that Verrill and others had shown. “Many of the great cathedrals of Europe were hundreds of years in the building,” wrote Verrill, ” Hundreds of highly skilled artisans worked steadily, equipped with excellent tempered steel tools, cutting and carving, setting stones in place; living and dying with their work unfinished and leaving their sons, their grandsons and their great grandsons to carry on until, after centuries, the building was completed.”

It took the Europeans over a millennia to reach the standard of culture and knowledge to achieve these vast enterprises. Verrill’s response to the preposterous notions of archaeologists such as Steibing, (16) who claim that the Incan culture had only been a few centuries old when the Spanish conquered them and that the ancient ruins in Peru only dated from a civilization that began with the Incan Emperor Manko-Kapak around 1300 A.D. was “Tommy rot!” Even at the time of the Spanish conquest of Peru in 1530 the Incas had no knowledge of when or by whom the magnificent structures were built.

Verrill mentioned that the cathedral of Notre Dame was 551 years in its construction, Rheims 200 years, Tours 380 years, Nantes 406 years, Canterbury 400 years, Worms 100 years, and St. Stephens 200 years. “Yet according to some of these modernizing archaeologists the Peruvian Indians, equipped with nothing better than stone and bronze implements, erected hundreds upon hundreds of palaces, forts, walls and temples and other structures far larger, more massive and entailing fully as great a knowledge of engineering, mathematics and stone cutting as any building in Europe, all in the brief space of less than three hundred years from the time they were primitive savages dwelling in thatched huts?” (Verrill,pp.248)

Today scientists finally are forced to admit in the light of the overwhelming evidence that the Moche and Chimu cultures of Peru predated the Incan culture by hundreds, and possibly thousands of years. The Valdivian civilization in Ecuador dates back to 3000, B.C., while the remnants of a pre-Incan culture in Peru known as the Chimus has been unearthed, where it was discovered that they used quite a sophisticated technique for the gold leaf finishing on their ornaments, which was an electro-plating process to gild their metal sculptures with gold! (17)

In order to accomplish this task they needed first of all an electric current and then they would have had to heat the gold to be gilded up to temperatures in the neighborhood of 1450 degrees Fahrenheit! Not only was a knowledge of producing and harnessing electrical current necessary, but a sophisticated knowledge of physics, thermodynamics, and chemistry would have been needed as well. The Chimus also preformed successful brain surgery, as evidenced by skulls that have been found with remarkably skillful incisions cut into them. One skull that had a silver plate inserted in it showed clear evidence that the patient survived the operation and lived for many years afterward, as the bone had grown around the edges of the plate. (18)

Verrill wrote: “On the contrary, all the evidence indicates a culture or a civilization long out dating the Incan culture and far surpassing it in many respects. There are no transitional remains showing that the one merged into the other.” (Verrill pp.246-248) It is apparent that the Incas inherited much of their knowledge from their remote ancestors, and these grand edifices were built by a pre-historic civilization that was by no means primitive, perhaps dating from before the Flood of Noah itself. Whatever the case, normal archaeological schemes of a band of primitive hunter-gatherers migrating down into South America from the Bering Straight of Alaska and within a few generations erecting such fantastic edifices with merely a stone age knowledge and culture makes no sense whatsoever.

The Darwin Papers © 2000 James M. Foard

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5 Responses to “High up in the Andes in South America”


  1. 1 Emma November 17, 2007 at 5:48 pm

    There was an advanced civilization on earth for thousands (millions) of years before Adam was created. There was a cataclismic destruction mentioned in verse 2 of Genesis 1 afterwhich the modern world was recreated from the ashes of the first.

  2. 2 MWorrell December 12, 2007 at 2:40 pm

    Re: “There was an advanced civilization on earth for thousands (millions) of years before Adam was created.”

    Any evidence, historical or literary (especially Biblical) that can be cited to support this concept would be greatly appreciated. If it adds fuel to prompt a response, let it be known that I think the idea is complete baloney.

  3. 3 anthony December 12, 2007 at 3:20 pm

    I agree MWorrell.

    Quote: “There was a cataclismic destruction mentioned in verse 2 of Genesis 1″…

    This is eisegesis, reading into scripture what is not there, rather than exegesis, extracting meaning from what is indeed there.

    The idea comes from Dake’s Annotated Bible, which is full of…well, baloney.

  4. 4 Maximus December 20, 2007 at 11:51 am

    I would like to see a continuation of the topic

  5. 5 Adam March 11, 2009 at 7:10 am

    is it possible for you to put some pictures on your website of the acient structure. I like your artical on the anceint civilization and am very interested on knowing more about them and their amazing structures…so if you get anymore info on the structures can you please post it on the website. Thanks


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